|Paper Title:||IMPACT OF VELOCITY AND HYDROGEN POTENTIAL ON CORROSION OF MEDIUM CARBON STEEL IN FRESH WATER ENVIRONMENT|
|Lead Author:||Okeahialam, Solomon I.|
|Co-Author(s):||Ekenyem, Stan C., Moses, Joseph and Okeahialam, Onyinyechi A.|
There is a knowledge gap on the effect of velocity and hydrogen potential (PH) on the corrosion of medium
carbon steels in fresh water and the desire to provide fundamental data for the behavior of medium carbon
steel in various environments form the basis for the investigation. The corrosion study was carried out
every 14days for a total of 98 days using weight lose method. The factors which are believed to affect the
corrosion of metals such as the PH of the environment, velocity of the flow water, and possible presence
of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were investigated.
|Paper Title:||GEOSPATIAL EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF IYIEKE AND EHUOMA WETLAND ECOSYSTEM RESOURCES FOR HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY IN AFIKPO NORTH L.G.A OF EBONYI STATE SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA.|
|Lead Author:||Otunta-Mayanga Gyspyson Alexius|
|Co-Author(s):||Ngozi Emeka Ekuma; Akombo Godwin|
This research was carried out in order to evaluate the impacts of Iyieke and Ehuoma wetland ecosystem resources on household food supply in Afikpo north L.G.A of Ebonyi state due to the problems of the effects of climate change, herdsmen/farmers clash on Iyieke and Ehuoma wetlands ecosystem resources while the objectives include:1. To determine the status of Iyieke and Ehuoma wetlands ecosystem resources from 1986 to 2018 for household food security. 2. To report on the Iyike and Ehuoma wetlands resources for household food security. Data was collected through satellite imageries, secondary and questionnaire means. Image processing was done using the ENVI CLASSIC 5.0 and IDRISI SELVA software (Clark Labs, Worcester, MA, USA).Landsat 5TM, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS and ETM+ were imported into ENVI CLASSIC 5.0 environment for radiometric corrections while model prediction was performed in IDRISI SELVA 17.0. Image composites was performed using near-infrared band 4, red-band 3 and green band 2 for both Landsat 5TM and ETM+ while Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS composite was performed using bands 5 ,4,3 of the imagery. This information in combination with obvious spectral signatures was used to identify 15 places where land category persists over time. These places were used to generate ground reference information to perform accuracy assessment for the classified maps. The maximum Likelihood classification algorithm was performed for the image classification of the study area. The 1987 Landsat 5TM, 2002 ETM+ and 2017 Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries were classified into five (5) categories: wetland, cultivation, settlement, water and forest. The overall accuracy assessment (OA) and Kappa Coefficient (K) was determined in GIS environment. Cluster random sampling technique was used in the study. A sample size of 60 households was chosen in each cluster. This gives us a total sample size of 360 household. Change detection and CA-Markov analysis was used to determine the status of Iyieke and Ehuoma wetlands ecosystem resources for household food security. The land use change detection was divided into three conditions; past, current and future time. Past and current conditions were analyzed by using supervised classification and image differencing methods. Meanwhile, the future condition was analyzed by using a Markov chain method based on past and current land uses. Descriptive statistics and Excel for windows software were used including frequencies and percentages respectively. The results thereof indicate that Iyieke and Ehuoma wetland ecosystem is very dynamic in nature. The trend of change in 2037 proper indicates that a general growth performance of all the land use land cover classes as against their trend in 2017-2037. It is highly predicted that wetland class category will increase by 38% against its reduction in 2017-2037 by -0.04%,cultivation class category by 23% against its reduction in 2017-2037 by 0.49%, settlement class category by 16% against its increase in 2017-2037 by1.52%,water class category by 3% against its increase in 2017-2037 by 0.25% and forest class category by 20% against its reduction rate in 2017-2037 by -1.72%.Socio-Economic characteristic of all respondents in the sampled villages showed a positive impact trends in aid to household food security in Afikpo north L.G.A of Ebonyi State. Above all, the response of all the respondents in the sampled villages of Ndibe/Enohia Nkalu,Ugwuagu, Unwana, Akpoha,Ohaisu and Ibii/Ozziza respectively, on the impact of Iyieke and Ehuoma wetland ecosystem resources to household food security was highly positive.
|Paper Title:||MODELING AND SIMULATION OF 58 BUS 330KV NIGERIA NETWORK|
|Lead Author:||Ananti John Egbunike|
|Co-Author(s):||Nwosu Ndubuisi Oluchukwu|
This Paper on the Modeling and simulation of 58 Bus 330k Nigeria Network is a complete modeling of Nigeria interconnected Power network. Its objective is to determine the structure of Nigeria Power network, to model a power flow on transmission lines and to develop a Simulation Model and the Simulation of 58 Bus Nigeria 330kv Transmission Network. The research material for this research is the 58 buses Nigerian 330-kV Transmission Network which shows that The Nigerian Transmission grid is made up of interconnected network of 6702 km of 330-kV that spans the country nationwide . The system may be divided into three geographical zones-North, South-East, and the South-West. The North is connected to the South through the one-triple circuit lines between Jebba and Oshogbo while the West is linked to the East through one transmission line from Oshogbo to Benin and one double line from Ikeja to Benin. The transmission grid is centrally controlled from the National Control centre (NCC) located at Oshogbo in Osun State, while there is a back-up or Supplementary National Control Centre (SNCC) at Shiroro in Niger State. The 58 bus Nigeria 330kV transmission line network was modeled in PSAT 2.1.8. The simulations of Nigeria 330kV was solved using the power flow equations and Newton – Raphson method of load flow solution. Results shows that ordinary line diagram of the 58 Bus network of Nigeria in a line diagram without full interconnections of the network that may not be used for further studies of the Nigeria network. But the simulated network in a PSAT Model for 58 Bus Nigeria 330 kV Network without a device like the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) Device gave provisions for insertion of devices that may help for future studies like identification of violated voltages on the network, insertion of devices like Static Synchronous Series Compensator, unified Power flow controller, and Static compensator (STATCOM). Therefore it is highly recommended that a Power system Analytical Tool (PSAT) should be used in the modeling of Nigerian Power network that can be used for further studies.